By its resolution 71/258, the General Assembly decided to convene a United Nations conference in 2017 to negotiate a legally binding instrument for banning nuclear weapons, which would lead to their total elimination. The Assembly encouraged all Member States to participate in the conference, which was attended by international organizations and representatives of civil society. Article 1 provides for prohibitions against the development, experimentation, manufacture, storage, deployment, transfer, use and threat of the use of nuclear weapons, as well as against the support and promotion of prohibited activities. Finally, any “control of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices” direct or indirect is prohibited. Article 3 requires parties that do not possess nuclear weapons to maintain the IAEA`s existing safeguards and, if they have not already done so, to accept security measures based on the model of non-nuclear-weapon States under the NPT. On 18 January 2018, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov addressed the UN Security Council, directly referring to the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons as “unbalanced methods that … Are not good at achieving the goal of a world without nuclear weapons. The Treaty requires States Parties to provide environmental assistance and rehabilitation to victims of the use and testing of nuclear weapons. Beatrice Fihn, executive director of the International Campaign for the Abolition of Nuclear Weapons, the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize-winning coalition that led the Nuclear Prohibition Treaty, said: “This moment goes back 75 years since the terrible attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the creation of the United Republic that has made nuclear disarmament a cornerstone.” This day, celebrated for the first time in 2014, is an opportunity for the international community to reaffirm its commitment to global nuclear disarmament as a top priority. It is an opportunity to inform the public and its leaders of the real benefits of eliminating these weapons and the social and economic costs of pursuing them. Given its universal membership and long experience in the fight against nuclear disarmament, it is particularly important to spend this day at the United Nations.
It is the ideal place to meet one of humanity`s greatest challenges, achieving peace and security in a world without nuclear weapons. The treaty was adopted on 7 July 2017, after two rounds of negotiations at the UN General Assembly. Both rounds were boycotted by all nuclear weapons that possessed states, most NATO countries and many military allies of nuclear-weapon States. A third project was presented on July 3, 2017.  A final obstacle to an agreement was the condition of the withdrawal clause, which means that a state “in the exercise of its national sovereignty, […] Decides that extraordinary events related to the purpose of the Treaty have jeopardized his country`s highest interests. The majority`s view was that this condition was subjective, and no security interest can justify genocide or mass extermination can contribute to security. However, since a neutral withdrawal clause without justification was not accepted by the minority, section 17 was accepted as a compromise.