U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology (2010,January) NIST Special Publication 1108, NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Release 1.0 [Online] Available: www.nist.gov/public_affairs/releases/upload/smartgrid_interoperability_final.pdf definition 3 (MA-secure). We say that a smart grid message authentication system is safe from mutual authentication (MA) if the probability is negligible for a polynomid opponent.  Q. Li and G. Cao. Multicast authentication in the smart grid with unique signature. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 2(4): 686-696, 2011.  H. Nicanfar, P. Jokar and V.C.
Leung. Smart Grid authentication and key management for Unicast and Multicast communications. In Proc. Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Asia (ISGT), pages 1-8. IEEE, 2011.  Daniel M. Kammen. The rise of renewable energy. Scientific American, 295 (3): 84-93, 2006.  W.
Wang and Z. Lu. Cyber-security in the smart grid: investigation and challenges. Computernetworks, 57(5):1344-1371, 2013. To enable network communication in the above architecture, it is desirable to choose communication technologies based on Internet protocol for the smart grid. Inevitably, these networks are vulnerable to a series of external attacks, such as identity-shifting attacks, follow-up attacks and doS attacks . In addition, a large amount of sensitive data, which has a direct impact on users` privacy, will be transferred via these networks. It is therefore essential to ensure that unauthorized organizations do not have access to this information transmitted or communicate with elements of information technology in smart grid communication systems.
K. Mahmood, S. A. Chaudhry, H. Naqvi, S. Kumari, X. Li and A. K. Sangaiah,” an elliptic curve cryptography based lightweight authentication scheme for smart grid communication, “Generating Future. Comput Syst, 81, 557-565, av. 2018  R.
Sule, R. S. Katti, and R. G. Kavasseri. A quick message authentication code with a variable length for secure communication in smart grids. At the Power and Energy Society General Meeting, pages 1-6. IEEE, 2012. The key authentication and agreement phase of the Li et al.  scheme requires a total of three modular exposure operations, a modular multiplication process, a modular inversion process and four SHA1 hopes on the .s side for calculation. On the `s side, it requires five modular exposure operations, a modular multiplication process and four SHA1 hopes for calculation.
Therefore, during the authentication and key agreement phase, the Li et al. system occupies about ms and ms on the page or enppschge.  NIST Frame. Roadmap for smart Grid interoperability standards, version 2.0 (2012). Reproduced with the permission of the copyright holder. 2012. Smart Grid has established itself as a next-generation power grid with high power flow optimization and high current quality. In recent years, smart grid technologies have attracted the attention of industry and science. However, the trade-off between security and efficiency remains a challenge in the practical implementation of the smart grid.
Finally, Li et al. proposed a lightweight message authentication scheme with the anonymity of users, claiming that there was evidence that their scheme was safe.